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Web Services

Take a REST

June 2004

by Paul Prescod 

Paul has put together a remarkable presentation about Resource Oriented Architecture (Data interfaces) vs Service Oriented Architecture (Services Interfaces). He dissects the Amazon REST interface and claims that it has been the most successful interface compared to the Amazon SOAP interface. I must admit that I cannot stand when some one is trying to make a point about architecture with a hacked URL syntax, but if I close my eyes when that happens, I really like his argumentation and conclusions. Beyond them, I am comforted in the idea that SOC will have to establish clear relationships to the concepts of Resources and Events, otherwise we will again achieve a mosaic of misfit concepts: SOA, ROA, EDA. I still think that everything is a service, but the service interface as defined in WSDL is not flexible enough today to accommodate all concepts. The best example I have to illustrate that, is that in the ebBP group we are attempting to describe ebXML BPSS business transactions and collaboration as a set of web services interfaces and this proves to be an impossible task. OASIS ebBP is probably a mix of ROA and EDA, yet sure feels like an SOA.

Web Services

Enterprise Workflow National Project Report

June 2004

by Gordon Docherty 

This is an outstanding report about Enterprise Workflow Systems, written for the British government. Anybody who is considering starting a workflow project should study this document which presents the concepts, terminology and architecture of Enterprise Workflow Systems from a technical perspective.

Web Services

Web Services and the Mainframe

June 2004

by Richard Adhikari 

This is an excellent overview of the question, along with a review of the various companies providing products in that market. In the article, John Fowler, Sun�s chief technology officer, predicts that the data center�s role will shift from one of managing boxes to managing services. He outlined three stages of deployment of Web services in the data center. The first stage is using Web services as management interfaces; stage two is the establishment of standardized systems for describing the data center, its services and infrastructure; the third stage will be the ability to change the data center on an ad hoc basis to suit current business requirements.


BPEL Unleashed

May 2004

by Doron Sherman 

Doron, CTO of Collaxa, provides a broad view and vision on BPEL. I particularly like the "genesis" part, which I think is very accurate: "There has been a continuous need in the enterprise to integrate systems and applications into end-to-end business processes". I have always been arguing that Collaxa has moved this technology from its EAI roots to the application model (J2EE), which I think is as useful if not more than in the EAI bus.


Solution Architecture for the Service-Oriented Enterprise

March 2004

by Keith Short

This is an outsanding presentation from Keith Short (Microsoft). He gaves great perspectives on Domain Specific Languages. Microsoft is on an incredible innovation path, overall this is very exciting and impressive.

"How do we work from business requirements to running code when stakeholders may span the organization? This session will offer a "case-study" walk-through of architectural artifacts from use cases to "code complete". The session will consider how our view of a "component" changes as services deliver more and more of an application�s functionality, how services are factored and orchestrated to effect business processes, and the use of client-side intelligence in a services world."


The Dataweb: An Introduction to XDI

January 2004

by Drummond Reed, Geoffrey Strongin

Here is another masterpiece from OASIS. It seems that this organization has proven itself in a few years to be one of the best way to produce web related specifications.

This specification closes a huge gap in the SOA stack. As people move to SOA, the "location" of a business entity will become "fuzzy". It is likely that even the theoretical grounds of federation will not be enough to address this issue, well here is a very elegant solution.

"With cross-domain applications comes another complex problem: the need to share instances of the same data across multiple domains, directories, databases, and applications. There are many facets to this challenge: identification, authentication, authorization, mediation, and synchronization; all problems that were minimized on the Web because it dealt primarily with presentation of data rather than interchange of data."


Domain-Specific Modeling and Model Driven Architecture

January 2004

by Steve Cook

This document represents the official position of Microsoft on MDA. This is quite interesting to learn that Microsoft now believes in domain specific languages. It shows that in the wake of Indigo or Xen, Microsoft has pretty much removed any barrier to innovation. All the lessons from the second half of the 90s have been learned, Microsoft is on a stellar path.


Jump Onto The Bus

January 2004

by Frank Leymann

I attended this presentation from Frank at the last conference on Service Oriented Computing in Trento, Italy. I recommend taking a look at it. This represents one of the best picture of SOA I have seen so far, not to mention that you get a view of IBM's On Demand computing vision. You can also access pretty much all the other presentations of the conference via this link.

B2B, Web Services, BPEL, ebXML

Comparing Comparing WSDL-based and ebXML-based based Approaches for B2B Protocol Specification

December 2003

by Martin Bernauer et al

This presentation was given at the last ICSOC-03 in Trento. This presentation provides a framework of reference to compare the two technologies. This is a must read if you plan on starting a B2B project.


BPEL for Programmers and Architects

December 2003

by Paul Brown

This is an outstanding introduction to BPEL without a drop of marketing fluff. If you want to understand where, how and when to use BPEL, this presentation is for you. I cannot agree more with Paul's analysis of BPEL.

Web Services

THOUGHT LEADERSHIP: My Wish List for Web Services

November 2003

by Bob Sutor

Bob is usually a well respected expert of XML and Web Services. I cannot tell you how disappointed I was by reading this article, especially after reading the title. I can read between the lines that:

  • After 3 years of incubation web services is kind of disappointing in terms of industry adoption
  • Bob tells us that WS are ready for B2B (Marty since you retire, IBM seem to have forgotten what B2B is). 
  • He continues by telling us that this is unfortunate that IBM bet the house on a technology that is owned by another company
  • He ends by telling us that Linux is the key to web services
  • Not a word about SOA ! If this is the response to Indigo, MS can REST :-)
Web Services

Question: How do you make two systems loosely coupled?

November 2003

by David Orchard

It turns out - and this shouldn't be a surprise - that the techniques that lead to loose coupling are well-known and have been proven in software for decades. Indeed, the Web architecture optimizes for loose coupling very effectively...

Web Services

Federation of Web Services

October 2003

by M. Mendes et al

In this paper an overview is given of the principal aspects of Web Services with special emphasis in the federation of them. Section 2 introduces definitions and the state of the art from some standards already in use. In section 3 the important point service of semantics is discussed, as a special point of Knowledge Management. Section 4 deals with the aspects of WS�s cooperation, presenting different ways of extending the Workflow Paradigm to the Internet. Finally section 5 presents some aspects of the needed infrastructure for the runtime of WS's. 


ebXML, an open standard

October 2003

by Sacha Schlegel

A short and complete introduction to ebXML. ebXML is a set of loosely coupled components, such as the ebXML Business Process, ebXML Messaging Service, ebXML Registry/Repository, ebXML Collaboration Protocol Profile and Agreement, and ebXML Core Components. ebXML took a top-down approach with analysing collaborative business processes between trading partners at a higher level and then working down towards all the details of how to exchange a concrete message.


BPEL: Business Processes with Web Services 

October 2003

by Mike Lehmann

Very good presentation, very clear, very detailed, very complete, one of the best one I have see so far. (Got the link from Paul Brown's Blog)


Conversation Support for Business Process Integration

October 2003

by James E. Hanson, et al

In this paper the authors present a new paradigm for business process integration. The approach is based on a conversation model that enables autonomous, distributed BPM (Business Process Management) modules to integrate and collaborate.




October 2003

by Nirmal Mukhi

This is a very good introduction to the principles of BPEL. Probably the best introduction I have seen so far.


IBM Exec Touts Need For BPEL Support, SOAs

October 2003

by Barbara Darrow & Elizabeth Montalbano,

I found for the first time (apologies if someone else said it before) the best definition of an orchestration language: "BPEL is an emerging specification that would give programmers a way to formally describe processes underlying business applications so that they can be exposed and linked to processes in other applications."

Enterprise Architecture, BPM, EDOC, ECA

MDA for Enterprise Collaboration & Integration

October 2003

by Cory Casanave

This is a very informative presentation that links Enterprise Architecture, MDA and BPM concepts.

Application Architecture

Application Architecture: Conceptual View

October 2003

by Maarten Mullender and Mike Burner

Good article that talks about the application architecture in a service based architecture. (Pascal Recchia referenced this article on the dotnetguru.org web site).


Seven Embarrassing Mistakes [Architects] Make When Implementing Web services & How You Can Avoid Them

October 2003

by Dave McComb

Before embarking in a web service project, everyone should read this guide. I also recommend that anyone take a look at the OAGIS standard from the Open Applications Group.


Peter Yared's Musings

October 2003

by Peter Yared

Peter was formly the CTO of NetDynamics (per IDC, the market leading Java Application Server from 1996-1999) and the CTO of the Application Server Division at Sun Microsystems.

He dares predicting the future of application servers, web services and languages. 


Open Source Workflow Tools

September 2003

by Sunil Abraham

"This article gives a compact overview of the open source projects, standards and commercial tools on business process management and workflow. The reason for this publication is that a lot of companies are not even aware of the fact that there are open source alternatives for business process management."



The Battle to Transport XML Business Documents

September 2003

by Mark Yader and David Webber

Very complete presentation from the perspective of standards, protocols, security, products, ...


Model Driven Architecture in a Web Services World

from UML to BPEL

September 2003

by Keith Mantell

Interestingly enough, the BPEL folks keep finding very basic examples to illustrate BPEL in the B2B world. Unfortunately, they do not realize that a company cannot couple its 30 ERP systems to its business partners. On the other BPEL semantics provide a very good solution for managing the states of these 30 ERP systems interacting with a series of partners.

Other than that, it is great that we see more and more articles connecting MDA to the work of standards group like BPEL. The caveat to my joy is that UML (and its activity diagram) offer very poor semantics to specify the control flow of business processes. I can attest that as the editor of the ebXML BPSS 1.1 specification.


Forming Agents for Workflow-Oriented Process Orchestration

September 2003

by M. Brian Blake

"The sophistication and maturity of distributed component-based services and semantic web services provide a promising  environment for specification-driven service composition.

Given the dynamic nature of this domain, the autonomy and adaptation of software agents represent a viable solution for the composition and enactment of cross-organizational services."



Oracle Backs BPEL4WS and WS-Choreography

September 2003

"BPEL4WS has significant depth for describing what is often referred to as a participant's private, or internal, business process, whereas the BPEL4WS model for public or external process is likely to evolve as more participants join the group. Discussions are now underway to determine if the W3C WS-Choreography group will work on primarily on the latter, with the goal of merging the two approaches over time"



Analysis of B2B Standards and Systems

September 2003

by Rainer Tellmann and Alexander Maedche

This very exhaustive paper provides a state-of-the-art overview and detailed analysis of existing B2B standards and systems.


The New Metamodeling Generation

September 2003

by Jonathan M. Sprinkle et al

I often get ask the question about what is a "metamodel". Here is an excellent answer !

Process Modeling for eBusiness

July 2003

by Thomas Dufresnes and James Martin

Excellent overview of "Modeling" capabilities of the standards "du moment" (BPEL, BPSS, ...). I am wondering though if the authors do not mix up the notion of specifying metadata to configure a run-time engine and "modeling". These two activities are vastly different though one could feed the other.

Automating Orchestration: bridges toward semantic web services

July 2003

by Sinan Aral

Important advances in standards development, orchestration, automation and security must be realized before Web Services can contribute extensively to enterprise integration efforts. Automated and coordinated Web Services development requires a move toward Semantic Web Services designed to combine the intelligent aspects of the Semantic Web with the reusable, component based architecture underpinning Web Services. This paper attempts to survey recent technical and strategic developments in both the Web Services space and the Semantic Web to highlight areas of possible functional coordination between the two.


A Comparison of ebXML and RosettaNet

July 2003

by Maja Pusnik

The technology for electronic business is obviously
evolving. Web services offer a technological basis;
however the need for technology, which covers the
higher-level semantics of electronic business,
particularly the description of business processes and
collaboration protocol profiles and agreements, is
increasing. In this paper, we will compare the two
most important technologies, ebXML and RosettaNet,
concentrating on their support for end-point
description, the orchestration of public processes,
private processes, contracts and agreements.

July 2003

by Francisco Curbera (IBM)

Excellent introduction BPEL.

Vers la gestion de services Web
July 2003

by Marie-Christine Fauvet

Excellent introduction to web services (in French).

Web Services and Implications in Software Developments
June 2003

by Alison Sol & Ivan Filho

This tutorial introduces the audience to the concepts of web services, and demonstrates how to go from an idea to the definition of a service on a WSDL file with subsequent implementation on a web server, and use from any possible client. Besides a survey of currently available technology, implementation and design considerations are presented, along with design guidelines and research themes related to Software Engineering.




Sending an unmistakeable message

May 2003

by David Longworth

An e-business messaging protocol that is helping enterprises migrate from EDI to XML could become an essential ingredient of web services infrastructure...



May 2003

The World Wide Grid

By Jeff Schneider

An essay from talking about the evolution of the web to enable server-to-server communications and the apparition of structured data services that are consumed by software rather than by humans.



May 2003

Orchestration, Choreography and Collaboration

By Carol McDonald

A very good overview of all major BMP related standards with a precise definition of Orchestration, Choreography and Collaboration.



Mars 2003

Principles of SOA

By Jason Bloomberg

"The Web services honeymoon is over. Numerous enterprises have built their Web services pilot projects and have proven to themselves that this most recent evolution of distributed computing technology can reduce integration and development costs substantially. In addition, critical Web services standards are falling into place, and vendors are coming to market with robust security and management products. It is time for forward-looking enterprises to take the next step..."



Mars 2003

Process Oriented Architecture Platforms

Greg Wilson 

This paper highlights a major shift occurring in application development: the emergence of Process-Oriented Architecture Platforms. These platforms fundamentally change the way process-driven applications are designed, developed, and deployed by providing a direct representation of the business process within the application architecture.



February, 2003

The Seven Basic Principles of Integration

Chris Bussler and Bart van der Hoeven 

A very good paper from Oracle on enterprise application integration that spans company boundaries.



December, 2002

Selling Software in a Lousy Market

An interview of PeopleSoft CEO Craig Conway 

A very refreshing view of the world. "For more than a year now, we've been evangelizing something we call the "real-time enterprise." It's the ability to put business processes online and connect them. [...] Think of order-to-cash. Most manufacturing companies think [of the process] in terms of getting an order and taking it all the way through [to] getting the cash. Well, it's a long process. It starts with marketing automation, marketing programs, sales automation. Then it goes to order entry. Well, that's supply chain. Then it goes off to shipping, billing. Hey, now you're getting into financial applications, and accounts receivable. [...]. That's the way companies run, but that's not the way they've used technology to this point. They've just automated the little pieces.



Infrastructure Software
November, 2002

Workflow drives IBM's vision

By Steve Gillmor and Mark Jones 


This is an interview of Scott Hebner, IBM'S director of marketing for WebSphere software. "[He] sees workflow as a key to developing Web services and Big Blue's strategy for making integration a core component of the development environment"



ebXML, Web Services
October, 2002

Multi-party business transaction paper

By Bob Haugen and Tony Fletcher

Bob Haugen and Tony Fletcher have published an excellent and very important paper. Its goal was to see how much we could harmonize the workings of the UN/CEFACT Business Collaboration Protocol (BCP) and the OASIS Business Transaction Protocol (BTP). 



 WS, XQuery
October, 2002

XSRL: XML Web Service Query Language paper

By Mike Papazoglou, Marco Aiello, Marco Pistore and Jian Yang

The paper details a novel approach to web service composition and orchestration: XSRL (XML Web Service Request Language). XSRL help federate web services via a precise domain model and enable client interaction with this federation via a "plan" with possibility of managing non-deterministic results. This work is key to address a class of problems which can be classified as "semi-structured" processes operating on "information rich" web services. By contrast, for instance, a framework like ebXML addresses problem associated to "structured" business processes operating on transactional web services." 



October, 2002

The importance of being integrated

By Tim Sloane

Purchased enterprise applications and custom software are designed to implement processes that solve specific departmental problems. They are not designed to make the data collected easy to access or distribute outside that solution. While these enterprise applications implement processes that improve efficiency, the exact processes implemented are typically poorly documented or unavailable programmatically[...] As that technology matures�and technology always matures�the business process information becomes hostage to the runtime. Instead, the industry must focus on a broader set of business action semantics. The business process can then be modeled using this rich set of semantics, and that process model can then be exported to any appropriate technology. 



September, 2002

The Ins and Outs How EAI Differs

By Jeff Pinkston

EAI and B2Bi infrastructure share many common capabilities. This excellent article presents what differs between them. Fundamentally, the difference is simple "Internal integration must be highly structured and controlled; external integration must be open and fluid."



Web Services
June, 2002

Web Services Infrastructure: The global utility for real-time business 

By Phil. Wainewright

In this white paper you will find:

  • The landscape of the emerging global infrastructure for real-time business 
  • The players who share the task of building and safeguarding that infrastructure 
  • The contest for new roles and positioning that some of those players will face


June, 2002

The Web The Web Scandal

By J. Pollock

Well nothing new here, but in case you wonder how much hype is behind the web service technology. It is worth a read.

"If ever there were a technology that could generate trillions of dollars in savings worldwide while simultaneously creating new wealth through mar-ket expansion, it would be the technology that makes business information If ever there were a technology that could gener-ate trillions of dollars in savings worldwide while simultaneously creating new wealth through mar-ket expansion, it would be the technology that makes business information interoperable."



June, 2002


By Frederik Willaert

This is a 200 page Master Thesis about XML standards and ebXML, from the SAP research chair at the University of Leuven. The why and the how. Here is a quote from the conclusion: "it is not surprising that ebXML may indeed be considered as a �complete� framework, covering all relevant aspects of the B2B collaboration problem domain. The combined play of the Business Operational View and the Functional Service View, to constitute an architecture centered around business transactions and collaborations, provides a well-founded, overall approach to B2B eCommerce."



June, 2002

An introduction to ebXML

By Nicholas Chase

"Whereas EDI for years has provided a usable but expensive way for companies to exchange information in an automated manner, ebXML now provides a means for companies to integrate their processes much more easily. Based on XML, it provides a methodology for business to determine what information they should exchange and how, as well as a set of specifications to allow automation of the process. This tutorial gives an overview of ebXML, explaining how all of the pieces fit together."



Web Services
July 18, 2002

The e-business continuum: Web services, ebXML and EDI

By Alan Kotok

"One can visualize EDI, ebXML, and Web services on a continuum rather than three distinct alternatives. EDI provides a fixed, predictable message format, which with high volumes and stable business processes make a lot of sense. With ebXML, one can have the messaging features of EDI, plus a larger framework of functions combining business process models, registries, company profiles, trading partner agreements, and semantic interoperability. While ebXML offers a complete framework, companies can implement parts of that framework, without having to swallow it all at once."



Web Services
WSDL July 18, 2002

The need for a dynamic invocation framework


"All applications should have the 'ability' to consume Web Services as easily as possible- without much (any?) code to handle the underlying standards such as XML & SOAP. In effect, they should be consuming Web Services as transparently as possible."



Web Services
July 18, 2002

OMG models for Web services

By Carolyn A. April

"The OMG is currently developing a standard way to use mapping to connect Web services to its ECA (Enterprise Collaboration Architecture), a framework for modeling complex business processes that tie together systems, customers, and partners electronically."




Web Services
WSMF July 11, 2002

The Web Service Modeling Framework WSMF

By D. Fensel and Chris Bussler

The Web Service Modeling Framework (WSMF) provides an appropriate conceptual model for developing and describing web services and their composition (complex web services). In a nutshell, its philosophy is based on the following principle: maximal de-coupling complemented by a scalable mediation service.

Web Services
MDA, UML, Web Services July 11, 2002

Using Model-Driven Architecture� to Develop Web Services

By David Franket and John Paroti

This article present a realistic view about how Web Services are constructed and how to use MDA to isolate WS construction from the evolutions of the standards and technologies.

Superb !

Web Services
WSCI, XLang, WSFL July 5, 2002

Orchestrate services

By Jon Udell

This is an excellent article which summarizes the issues and approaches

SOAP, WSDL, UDDI, WSIL, XLang, ebXML July 9, 2002

New directions in Application Integration: Web Services

By Frank Goethals

Excellent analysis of the different specifications in the context of Enterprise Application Integration